Zoonotic potential and perspective on the life cycle of Cryptosporidium in farmed animals and poultry: A review

Abstract : Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan parasite found in all vertebrates of various species. It was recognized as a zoonotic species as it infects many animals and humans, causing self-limiting diarrhea. The first description of Cryptosporidium was given by Tyzzer, but later it was found that Cryptosporidiosis was not only a disease of veterinary clinical concern but also infectious for a wide range of farm animals of different species and humans. During 1970, Cryptosporidium emerged as the life-threatening parasite in the immune-compromised patients of AIDS and younger children worldwide, as it brought the pathogen into the limelight. The epidemiology involves transmission (both direct and indirect) from person to person, from animals to humans and animals to animals, as well as through contaminated food and water with the infectious oocyst. Cryptosporidium parvum has confirmed the existence of hosts and multiple transmission routes. Various factors, such as pH, temperature, and geographical distribution, play an important role in the prevalence and epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis. In the last two decades, with the advent of genotyping, have begun to discover the enormous diversity that occurs in the genus Cryptosporidium and have gained a clearer picture of the parasite. This review covers the life cycle, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of Cryptosporidium in the farmed and poultry sectors.
Keyword : Cryptosporidium, oocyst, parasite, intracellular, epidemiology, and farmed animals
Author(s) : Bharti, P.
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Published Issue : 2024 Vol. 19 Number 1

2024 Vol. 19 Number 1