A comprehensive review on DNA barcoding for species identification across diverse taxa

Abstract : DNA barcoding has emerged as an invaluable tool for accurate species identification, complementing traditional morphological approaches. This molecular technique utilizes standardized short genetic markers, primarily the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene, to assign organisms to species by comparing sequences to reference databases. This review provides a comprehensive overview of DNA barcoding, its applications across diverse domains, and recent advancements. The key aspects discussed include the selection of CO1 as the standard barcode due to its evolutionary characteristics and practical utility, and the general procedure for DNA extraction, amplification, sequencing, and analysis using bioinformatics tools. The importance of reference databases such as BOLD and GenBank in facilitating species identification is highlighted. The manuscript extensively covers barcoding markers for various taxonomic groups, including animals (CO1, ITS), plants (rbcL, matK), fishes (CO1, Cytb), insects (CO1, ITS2), nematodes (18S rRNA, ITS), and bacteria (16S rRNA, gyrB). Additionally, remarkable progress in DNA barcoding technology, such as next-generation sequencing, metabarcoding, and miniaturized devices has been made. Despite the limitations and challenges associated with incomplete reference databases, DNA degradation, and standardization issues, ongoing advancements and collaborative efforts aim to enhance the reliability and utility of DNA barcoding for species identification across diverse biological applications.
Keyword : DNA barcoding, COI, 18s RNA, BOLD, CBOL, database
Author(s) : Alam, M., Abbas, K., Usmani, N., Raza, M. T., Bhat, M. R., Mustafa, M., Husain, A.
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Published Issue : 2024 Vol. 19 Number 2

2024 Vol. 19 Number 2